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 * Copyright (c) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
 *               2002, 2003, 2004
 *    Ohio University.
 * ---
 * Starting with the release of tcptrace version 6 in 2001, tcptrace
 * is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL).  We believe
 * that, among the available licenses, the GPL will do the best job of
 * allowing tcptrace to continue to be a valuable, freely-available
 * and well-maintained tool for the networking community.
 * Previous versions of tcptrace were released under a license that
 * was much less restrictive with respect to how tcptrace could be
 * used in commercial products.  Because of this, I am willing to
 * consider alternate license arrangements as allowed in Section 10 of
 * the GNU GPL.  Before I would consider licensing tcptrace under an
 * alternate agreement with a particular individual or company,
 * however, I would have to be convinced that such an alternative
 * would be to the greater benefit of the networking community.
 * ---
 * This file is part of Tcptrace.
 * Tcptrace was originally written and continues to be maintained by
 * Shawn Ostermann with the help of a group of devoted students and
 * users (see the file 'THANKS').  The work on tcptrace has been made
 * possible over the years through the generous support of NASA GRC,
 * the National Science Foundation, and Sun Microsystems.
 * Tcptrace is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 * Tcptrace is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
 * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * General Public License for more details.
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with Tcptrace (in the file 'COPYING'); if not, write to the
 * Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
 * MA 02111-1307 USA
 * Author:  Shawn Ostermann
 *          School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
 *          Ohio University
 *          Athens, OH
 *          ostermann@cs.ohiou.edu
 *          http://www.tcptrace.org/

 * The newest gcc (3.3) is much pickier about the unused variables that
 * we define for Copyright and RCSid, so this will shut it up.
#ifdef __GNUC__
#define GCC_UNUSED __attribute__((unused))
#define GCC_UNUSED

static char const GCC_UNUSED rcsid_tcptrace[] =
    "@(#)$Header: /usr/local/cvs/tcptrace/tcptrace.h,v 5.78 2004/11/04 21:55:38 sdo Exp $";

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <net/if.h>
#if __FreeBSD__ >= 2
#include <osreldate.h>
#if __FreeBSD_version >= 300000
#include <net/if_var.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <netinet/if_ether.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netinet/udp.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

/* IPv6 support */
#include "ipv6.h"

/* dynamic string support */
#include "dstring.h"

/* memory allocation routines */
#include "pool.h"

/* we want LONG LONG in some places */
typedef unsigned long long int u_llong;
typedef long long int llong;
/* Thanks to MacOSX, they use %qu to print unsigned long long ints */
/* There is a test to see if we need to use %qu or %llu to print these variables */
/* The test is located in configure.in */
#ifdef USE_LLU
#define FS_ULL "llu" /* For most systems use llu */
#define FS_LL  "lld" /* For most systems use ll */
#else /* USE_LLU */
#define FS_ULL "qu"  /* MacOSX use qu */
#define FS_LL  "qd"  /* MacOSX use qd */
#endif /* USE_LLU */

#else /* LONG LONG */
typedef unsigned long int u_llong;
typedef long int llong;
#define FS_ULL "lu" /* No long long unsigned, so  use lu */
#define FS_LL  "ld" /* No long long ints, so use ld */
#endif /* LONG LONG */

/* plotter information */
typedef int PLOTTER;
#define NO_PLOTTER -1
#define NCOLORS 8
extern char *ColorNames[NCOLORS];
/* {"green", "red", "blue", "yellow", "purple", "orange", "magenta", "pink"}; */
typedef struct pl_line *PLINE;

/* max number of letters in endpoint name */
/* (8 allows 26**8 different endpoints (209,000,000,000)
    probably plenty for now!!!!!) */

/* several places in the code NEED numbers of a specific size. */
/* since the definitions aren't standard across everything we're */
/* trying to support, the types are gathered up here */
/* specifically, we need:
   tt_uint32      unsigned 32 bit 
   tt_uint16      unsigned 16 bit 
   tt_int32 signed 32 bit 
   tt_int16 signed 16 bit
/* first, do the 32 bit ones */
typedef unsigned long tt_uint32;
typedef          long tt_int32;
typedef unsigned int tt_uint32;
typedef          int tt_int32;
OOPS: Please insert an appropriate 32-bit unsigned type here!
OOPS: Please insert an appropriate 32-bit signed type here!
#endif /* SIZEOF_UNSIGNED_INT == 4 */
#endif /* SIZEOF_UNSIGNED_LONG_INT == 4 */
/* first, do the 16 bit ones */
typedef unsigned int tt_uint16;
typedef          int tt_int16;
typedef unsigned short tt_uint16;
typedef          short tt_int16;
OOPS: Please insert an appropriate 16-bit unsigned type here!
OOPS: Please insert an appropriate 16-bit signed type here!
#endif /* SIZEOF_UNSIGNED_INT == 4 */
#endif /* SIZEOF_UNSIGNED_LONG_INT == 4 */

/* type for a TCP sequence number, ACK, FIN, or SYN */
/* This type MUST be a 32-bit unsigned number */
typedef tt_uint32 seqnum;

/* length of a segment */
typedef u_long seglen;

/* type for a quadrant number */
typedef u_char quadnum;  /* 1,2,3,4 */

/* type for a TCP port number */
typedef u_short portnum;

/* type for an IP address */
/* IP address can be either IPv4 or IPv6 */
typedef struct ipaddr {
    u_char addr_vers;   /* 4 or 6 */
    union {
      struct in_addr   ip4;
      struct in6_addr  ip6;
    } un;
} ipaddr;

#ifndef __VMS

/* some machines (TRUE64 for one) handle the 4-bit TCP/IP fields
   differently, so this macro simplifies life */
#define IP_HL(pip)   ((pip)->ip_hl)
#define IP_V(pip)    ((pip)->ip_v)
#define TH_X2(ptcp)  ((ptcp)->th_x2)
#define TH_OFF(ptcp) ((ptcp)->th_off)
/* some systems (darwin at least) use this for something else */


/* One alternative looks like this: */
#define IP_HL(pip)   ((pip)->ip_vhl&0xf)
#define IP_V(pip)    ((pip)->ip_vhl>>4)
#define TH_X2(ptcp)  ((ptcp)->th_xoff&0xf)
#define TH_OFF(ptcp) ((ptcp)->th_xoff>>4)


#undef TH_FLAGS
#define TH_FLAGS(ptcp) ((ptcp)->th_flags)

/* type for a timestamp */
typedef struct timeval timeval;
#define ZERO_TIME(ptv)(((ptv)->tv_sec == 0) && ((ptv)->tv_usec == 0))

/* type for a Boolean */
typedef u_char Bool;
#define TRUE      1
#define FALSE     0
#define BOOL2STR(b) (b)?"TRUE":"FALSE"

/* ACK types */
enum t_ack {NORMAL = 1,       /* no retransmits, just advance */
          AMBIG = 2,          /* segment ACKed was rexmitted */
          CUMUL = 3,          /* doesn't advance */
          TRIPLE = 4,         /* triple dupack */
          NOSAMP = 5};  /* covers retransmitted segs, no rtt sample */

/* type for an internal file pointer */
typedef struct mfile MFILE;

/* file name information */
extern char **filenames;      /* all the files on the cmd line */
extern char *cur_filename;    /* the current file */

/* first and last packet timestamp */
extern timeval first_packet;
extern timeval last_packet;

/* counters */
extern u_long tcp_trace_count;
extern u_long udp_trace_count;

typedef struct segment {
    seqnum  seq_firstbyte;    /* seqnumber of first byte */
    seqnum  seq_lastbyte;     /* seqnumber of last byte */
    u_char  retrans;    /* retransmit count */
    u_int   acked;            /* how MANY times has has it been acked? */
    timeval time;       /* time the segment was sent */
    struct segment *next;
    struct segment *prev;
} segment;

typedef struct quadrant {
    segment *seglist_head;
    segment *seglist_tail;
    Bool    full;
    struct quadrant *prev;
    struct quadrant *next;
} quadrant;

typedef struct seqspace {
    quadrant      *pquad[4];
} seqspace;

typedef struct tcb {
    /* parent pointer */
    struct stcp_pair *ptp;
    struct tcb    *ptwin;

    /* TCP information */
    seqnum  ack;
    seqnum  seq;
    seqnum  syn;
    seqnum  fin;
    seqnum  windowend;
    timeval time;

    /* TCP options */
    u_int   mss;
    Bool    f1323_ws;   /* did he request 1323 window scaling? */
    Bool    f1323_ts;   /* did he request 1323 timestamps? */
    Bool    fsack_req;  /* did he request SACKs? */
    u_char  window_scale;

      /* If we are using window scaling, have we adjusted the 
         win_min field from the non-scaled window size
         that appeared in the SYN packet?? */
    Bool window_stats_updated_for_scaling;
    u_llong     win_scaled_pkts; /* Used to calculate avg win adv */

    /* statistics added */
    u_llong data_bytes;
    u_llong data_pkts;
    u_llong data_pkts_push;
    u_llong unique_bytes;     /* bytes sent (-FIN/SYN), excluding rexmits */
    u_llong rexmit_bytes;
    u_llong rexmit_pkts;
    u_llong ack_pkts;
    u_llong pureack_pkts;     /* mallman - pure acks, no data */
    u_long  win_max;
    u_long  win_min;
    u_llong win_tot;
    u_long      win_last;  /* last advertised window size*/
    u_long  win_zero_ct;
    u_llong packets;
    u_char  syn_count;
    u_char  fin_count;
    u_char  reset_count;  /* resets SENT */
    u_long  min_seg_size;
    u_long  max_seg_size;
    u_llong out_order_pkts;   /* out of order packets */
    u_llong sacks_sent; /* sacks returned */
    u_long  ipv6_segments;    /* how many segments were ipv6? */

    /* stats on urgent data */
    u_long     urg_data_bytes;
    u_long     urg_data_pkts;
   /* Statistics to store the number of Zero window probes
      seen and the total number of bytes spent for it. */
    u_long      num_zwnd_probes;  
    u_long      zwnd_probe_bytes;

    /* stats on sequence numbers */

    seqnum  min_seq;    /* smallest seq number seen */
    seqnum  max_seq;    /* largest seq number seen */
    seqnum  latest_seq; /* most recent seq number seen */

    /* stats on sequence space wrap arounds */
    u_int quad1, quad2, quad3, quad4;  /* was every quadrant visited */
    u_int seq_wrap_count;              /* wrap count */
    /* hardware duplicate detection */
    struct str_hardware_dups {
      seqnum      hwdup_seq;  /* sequence number */
      u_short     hwdup_id;   /* IP ID */
      u_long      hwdup_packnum; /* packet number */
    } hardware_dups[SEGS_TO_REMEMBER];
    u_long num_hardware_dups;
    u_char hardware_dups_ix;

    /* did I detect any "bad" tcp behavior? */
    /* at present, this means: */
    /*  - SYNs retransmitted with different sequence numbers */
    /*  - FINs retransmitted with different sequence numbers */
    Bool    bad_behavior;

    /* added for initial window stats (for Mallman) */
    u_long  initialwin_bytes; /* initial window (in bytes) */
    u_long  initialwin_segs;  /* initial window (in segments) */
    Bool    data_acked; /* has any non-SYN data been acked? */

    /* added for (estimated) congestions window stats (for Mallman) */
    u_long  owin_max;
    u_long  owin_min;
    u_llong owin_tot;
    u_llong owin_wavg;  /* weighted owin */
    u_llong     owin_count;
    u_long  previous_owin_sample;
    timeval     previous_owin_sample_time;

    /* RTT stats for singly-transmitted segments */
    double  rtt_last;   /* RTT as of last good ACK (microseconds) */
    u_long  rtt_min;
    u_long  rtt_max;
    double  rtt_sum;    /* for averages */
    double  rtt_sum2;   /* sum of squares, for stdev */
    u_long  rtt_count;  /* for averages */
    /* RTT stats for multiply-transmitted segments */
    u_long  rtt_min_last;
    u_long  rtt_max_last;
    double  rtt_sum_last;     /* from last transmission, for averages */
    double  rtt_sum2_last;    /* sum of squares, for stdev */
    u_long  rtt_count_last;   /* from last transmission, for averages */

      /* To keep track of stats for FULL SIZE segments
         Simple heuristic :
         We shall treat the largest packet, so far seen as the
         "full size" packet and collect stats. accordingly.
         Upon seeing a bigger packet, we flush all stats. collected
         incorrectly and begin all over again */
      u_long rtt_full_size; 

      u_long rtt_full_min;
      u_long rtt_full_max;
      double rtt_full_sum;    /* for averages */
      double rtt_full_sum2;   /* sum of squares for stdev */
      u_long rtt_full_count;  /* for averages */ 

      u_long rtt_3WHS;        /* rtt value used to seed RTO timers */

    /* ACK Counters */
    u_llong rtt_amback; /* ambiguous ACK */
    u_llong rtt_cumack; /* segments only cumulativly ACKed */
    u_llong rtt_nosample;     /* segments ACKED, but after retransmission */
                        /* of earlier segments, so sample isn't */
                        /* valid */
    u_llong rtt_unkack; /* unknown ACKs  ??? */
    u_llong rtt_dupack; /* duplicate ACKs */
    u_llong rtt_triple_dupack; /* triple duplicate ACKs */
    /* retransmission information */
    seqspace    *ss;          /* the sequence space*/
    u_long  retr_max;   /* maximum retransmissions ct */
    u_long  retr_min_tm;      /* minimum retransmissions time */
    u_long  retr_max_tm;      /* maximum retransmissions time */
    double  retr_tm_sum;      /* for averages */
    double  retr_tm_sum2;     /* sum of squares, for stdev */
    u_long  retr_tm_count;    /* for averages */

    /* Instantaneous throughput info */
    timeval thru_firsttime;   /* time of first packet this interval */
    u_long  thru_bytes; /* number of bytes this interval */
    u_long  thru_pkts;  /* number of packets this interval */
    PLOTTER thru_plotter;     /* throughput data dump file */
    timeval thru_lasttime;    /* time of previous segment */
    PLINE   thru_avg_line;    /* average throughput line */
    PLINE   thru_inst_line;   /* instantaneous throughput line */

    /* data transfer time stamps - mallman */
    timeval first_data_time;
    timeval last_data_time;

    /* Time Sequence Graph info for this one */
    PLOTTER tsg_plotter;
    char    *tsg_plotfile;

    /* Time Line Graph */
    PLOTTER     tline_plotter;
    /* Dumped RTT samples */
    MFILE   *rtt_dump_file;

    /* Extracted stream contents */
    MFILE   *extr_contents_file;
    u_llong trunc_bytes;      /* data bytes not see due to trace file truncation */
    u_llong trunc_segs; /* segments with trunc'd bytes */
    seqnum  extr_lastseq;     /* last sequence number we stored */
    seqnum  extr_initseq;     /* initial sequence number (same as SYN unless we missed it) */

    /* RTT Graph info for this one */
    PLOTTER rtt_plotter;
    PLINE   rtt_line;

    /* Segment size graph */
    PLOTTER segsize_plotter;
    PLINE   segsize_line;
    PLINE   segsize_avg_line;

    /* Congestion window graph */
    PLOTTER owin_plotter;
    PLINE   owin_line;
    PLINE       rwin_line;
    PLINE   owin_avg_line;
    PLINE   owin_wavg_line;

    /* for tracking unidirectional idle time */
    timeval last_time;  /* last packet SENT from this side */
    u_llong idle_max;   /* maximum idle time observed (usecs) */

    /* for looking for interesting SACK blocks */
    u_long  num_sacks;
    u_long  max_sack_blocks;
    u_long  num_dsacks;

    /* for computing LEAST (see FAQ) */
    enum    tcp_strains { TCP_RENO, TCP_SACK, TCP_DSACK } tcp_strain;
    u_long  LEAST;
    char    in_rto;
    u_long  recovered, recovered_orig, rto_segment, lastackno;
    u_long  event_retrans, event_dupacks;

    /* host name letter(s) */
    char    *host_letter;
} tcb;

typedef u_short hash;

typedef struct {
    ipaddr  a_address;
    ipaddr  b_address;
    portnum a_port;
    portnum b_port;
    hash    hash;
} tcp_pair_addrblock;

struct stcp_pair {
    /* are we ignoring this one?? */
    Bool          ignore_pair;

    /* inactive (previous instance of current connection */
    Bool          inactive;

    /* endpoint identification */
    tcp_pair_addrblock  addr_pair;

    /* connection naming information */
    char          *a_hostname;
    char          *b_hostname;
    char          *a_portname;
    char          *b_portname;
    char          *a_endpoint;
    char          *b_endpoint;

    /* connection information */
    timeval       first_time;
    timeval       last_time;
    u_llong       packets;
    tcb                 a2b;
    tcb                 b2a;

    /* module-specific structures, if requested */
    void          **pmod_info;

    /* which file this connection is from */
    char          *filename;
typedef struct stcp_pair tcp_pair;

typedef struct tcphdr tcphdr;

extern int num_tcp_pairs;     /* how many pairs are in use */
extern tcp_pair **ttp;        /* array of pointers to allocated pairs */

/* Wed Aug 20, 2003 - Ramani*/
/*  Prior to version 6.4.11, the data structure for storing the snapshots of 
 connections was a hashtable with linked lists. But this might lead to a 
 worst case scenario when many connections hash to the same hash table entry.
 In such a case, searching for the connections degrades to searching a linked 
 list with a worst case complexity of O(number of connections in list). Hence 
 the new version implements an AVL tree in place of linked list leading to a 
 worst case complexity of O(ln(number of connections in tree)). 
    The modified data structure was tested with dumpfiles containing lots of 
 connections. A comparison of the profiles suggests an improvement in the time 
 spent in the dotrace function. Even though the AVL tree implementation 
 involves balancing the tree, since most of the accesses involve searching the 
 data structure, AVL tree performs MUCH better than linked list.
     The algorithms for AVL tree implementation are based on those explained in
 "Data Structures and Program Design in C by Robert L.Kruse, Bruce P.Leung, 
 Clovis L.Tondo". The source code for AVL tree implementation is from the 
 Institute of Applied Iconoclasm who put up the source code at 
 <http://www.purists.org>. We thank Georg for the source code whose mail 
 address has been mentioned as <georg@purists.org> */

/* Data structures for AVL tree */

/* Which of a given node's subtrees is higher in the AVL tree */
enum AVLSKEW {
/* Did an insertion/deletion succeed and if we need to balance the AVL tree */
enum AVLRES {

/* Tue Nov 17, 1998 */
/* prior to version 5.13, we kept a hash table of all of the connections. */
/* The most recently-accessed connections move to the front of the bucket */
/* linked list.  Unfortunately, when reading thousands of connections on */
/* a machine with limited physical memory, this worked poorly.  Every time */
/* a new connection opened, we had to search the entire bucket, which */
/* pulled all of the paged-out connections back into memory.  The new */
/* system keeps a quick snapshot of the connection (ptp_snap) in the */
/* hash table.  We only retrieve the connection record if the snapshot */
/* matches. The result is that it works MUCH better when memory is low. */
typedef struct ptp_snap {
    enum AVLSKEW        skew;      /* Skew of the AVL tree node */
    tcp_pair_addrblock  addr_pair; /* just a copy */
    struct ptp_snap     *left, *right;  /* Left and right trees of the AVL node */
    void          *ptp;
} ptp_snap;

typedef struct ptp_ptr {
  struct ptp_ptr  *next;
  struct ptp_ptr  *prev;
  struct ptp_snap *from;
  tcp_pair        *ptp;
} ptp_ptr;

#define NONREAL_LIVE_CONN_INTERVAL      4*60    /* 4 minutes */
#define REMOVE_LIVE_CONN_INTERVAL   8*3600      /* 8 hours */
#define REMOVE_CLOSED_CONN_INTERVAL 8*60  /* 8 minutes */
#define UPDATE_INTERVAL             30    /* 30 seconds */
#define MAX_CONN_NUM                50000 /* max number of connections */
                                    /* for continuous mode */

/* minimal support for UDP "connections" */
typedef struct ucb {
    /* parent pointer */
    struct sudp_pair *pup;
    struct ucb    *ptwin;

    /* statistics added */
    u_llong data_bytes;
    u_llong packets;
    u_long  min_dg_size;
    u_long  max_dg_size;

    /* host name letter(s) */
    char    *host_letter;
} ucb;

typedef tcp_pair_addrblock udp_pair_addrblock;
struct sudp_pair {
    /* Are we ignoring this 'connection' ? */
    Bool                ignore_pair;
    /* endpoint identification */
    udp_pair_addrblock  addr_pair;

    /* connection naming information */
    char          *a_hostname;
    char          *b_hostname;
    char          *a_portname;
    char          *b_portname;
    char          *a_endpoint;
    char          *b_endpoint;

    /* connection information */
    timeval       first_time;
    timeval       last_time;
    u_llong       packets;
    ucb                 a2b;
    ucb                 b2a;

    /* module-specific structures, if requested */
    void          **pmod_info;

    /* which file this connection is from */
    char          *filename;

    /* linked list of usage */
    struct sudp_pair *next;
typedef struct sudp_pair udp_pair;
typedef struct udphdr udphdr;

extern int num_udp_pairs;     /* how many pairs are in use */
extern udp_pair **utp;        /* array of pointers to allocated pairs */

/* option flags */
extern Bool colorplot;
extern Bool dump_rtt;
extern Bool graph_rtt;
extern Bool graph_tput;
extern Bool graph_tsg;
extern Bool graph_segsize;
extern Bool graph_owin;
extern Bool graph_tline;
extern Bool hex;
extern Bool ignore_non_comp;
extern Bool resolve_ipaddresses;
extern Bool resolve_ports;
extern Bool triple_dupack_allows_data;
extern Bool verify_checksums;
extern Bool print_rtt;
extern Bool print_owin;
extern Bool printbrief;
extern Bool printsuppress;
extern Bool printem;
extern Bool printallofem;
extern Bool printticks;
extern Bool dump_packet_data;
extern Bool warn_ooo;
extern Bool warn_printtrunc;
extern Bool warn_printbadmbz;
extern Bool warn_printhwdups;
extern Bool warn_printbad_syn_fin_seq;
extern Bool show_out_order;
extern Bool show_rexmit;
extern Bool show_zero_window;
extern Bool show_urg;
extern Bool show_sacks;
extern Bool show_rtt_dongles;
extern Bool show_triple_dupack;
extern Bool show_zwnd_probes;
extern Bool use_short_names;
extern Bool save_tcp_data;
extern Bool graph_time_zero;
extern Bool graph_seq_zero;
extern Bool print_seq_zero;
extern Bool graph_zero_len_pkts;
extern Bool plot_tput_instant;
extern Bool filter_output;
extern Bool do_udp;
extern Bool show_title;
extern Bool show_rwinline;
extern Bool docheck_hw_dups;
/* constants for real-time (continuous) mode */
extern Bool run_continuously;
extern Bool conn_num_threshold;
extern Bool xplot_all_files;
extern Bool ns_hdrs;
extern Bool dup_ack_handling;
extern Bool csv;
extern Bool tsv;
extern u_long remove_live_conn_interval;
extern u_long nonreal_live_conn_interval;
extern u_long remove_closed_conn_interval;
extern u_long update_interval;
extern u_long max_conn_num;

extern int debug;
extern int thru_interval;
extern u_long pnum;

/* extended variables with values */
extern char *output_file_dir;
extern char *output_file_prefix;
extern char *xplot_title_prefix;
extern char *xplot_args;
extern char *sv;
extern char *sp;       /* Separator used for long output with <SP>-separated-values */

/* Used to comment out header lines of the long output
 * when <SP>-separated-values is requested
extern char *comment;

extern u_long ctrunc;
extern timeval current_time;
extern char *output_filename;

/* first and last packet timestamp */
extern timeval first_packet;
extern timeval last_packet;

#define MAX_NAME 20

/* external routine decls */
double sqrt(double x);
void free(void *);
int finite(double);

/* note that many machines have an ether_ntoa, but the output differs, as does
   the prototype, so we'll include our own and change the name to avoid conflicts
   with local prototypes if they exist and differ */
char *Ether_Ntoa(struct ether_addr *e);

/* global routine decls */
void *MallocZ(int);
void *ReallocZ(void *oldptr, int obytes, int nbytes);
void trace_init(void);
void trace_done(void);
void seglist_init(tcb *);
void printpacket(int, int, void *, int, struct ip *, void *plast, tcb *tcb);
void plotter_vtick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_utick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_uarrow(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_tick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long, char);
void plotter_text(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long, char *, char  *);
void plotter_temp_color(PLOTTER, char *color);
void plotter_ltick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_rtick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_rarrow(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_plus(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_perm_color(PLOTTER, char *color);
void plotter_line(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_larrow(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_htick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_dtick(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_dot(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_done(void);
void plotter_dline(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_diamond(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_darrow(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_box(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_arrow(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long, char);
void plotter_nothing(PLOTTER, timeval);
void plotter_invisible(PLOTTER, timeval, u_long);
void plotter_switch_axis(PLOTTER, Bool);
void plot_init(void);
tcp_pair *dotrace(struct ip *, struct tcphdr *ptcp, void *plast);
void PrintRawData(char *label, void *pfirst, void *plast, Bool octal);
void PrintRawDataHex(char *label, void *pfirst, void *plast);
void PrintTrace(tcp_pair *);
void UDPPrintTrace(udp_pair *);
void PrintSVHeader(void);
void PrintBrief(tcp_pair *);
void UDPPrintBrief(udp_pair *);
void OnlyConn(int);
void IgnoreConn(int);
void OnlyUDPConn(int);
void IgnoreUDPConn(int);
double elapsed(timeval, timeval);
void tv_sub(struct timeval *plhs, struct timeval rhs);
void tv_add(struct timeval *plhs, struct timeval rhs);
int tv_cmp(struct timeval lhs, struct timeval rhs);
Bool tv_same(struct timeval lhs, struct timeval rhs);
char *elapsed2str(double etime);
int ConnReset(tcp_pair *);
int ConnComplete(tcp_pair *);
u_int SynCount(tcp_pair *ptp);
u_int FinCount(tcp_pair *ptp);
char *ts2ascii(timeval *);
char *ts2ascii_date(timeval *);
char *ServiceName(portnum);
char *HostName(ipaddr);
char *HostAddr(ipaddr);
char *HostLetter(llong);
char *NextHostLetter(void);
char *EndpointName(ipaddr,portnum);
PLOTTER new_plotter(tcb *plast, char *filename, char *title,
                char *xlabel, char *ylabel, char *suffix);
int rexmit(tcb *, seqnum, seglen, Bool *);
enum t_ack ack_in(tcb *, seqnum, unsigned tcp_data_length, u_long eff_win);
Bool IsRTO(tcb *ptcb, seqnum s);
void DoThru(tcb *ptcb, int nbytes);
struct mfile *Mfopen(char *fname, char *mode);
void Minit(void);
int Mfileno(MFILE *pmf);
int Mvfprintf(MFILE *pmf, char *format, va_list ap);
int Mfwrite(void *buf, u_long size, u_long nitems, MFILE *pmf);
long Mftell(MFILE *pmf);
int Mfseek(MFILE *pmf, long offset, int ptrname);
int Mfprintf(MFILE *pmf, char *format, ...);
int Mfflush(MFILE *pmf);
int Mfclose(MFILE *pmf);
int Mfpipe(int pipes[2]);
struct tcp_options *ParseOptions(struct tcphdr *ptcp, void *plast);
FILE *CompOpenHeader(char *filename);
FILE *CompOpenFile(char *filename);
void CompCloseFile(char *filename);
void CompFormats(void);
int CompIsCompressed(void);
Bool FileIsStdin(char *filename);
struct tcb *ptp2ptcb(tcp_pair *ptp, struct ip *pip, struct tcphdr *ptcp);
void PcapSavePacket(char *filename, struct ip *pip, void *plast);
void StringToArgv(char *buf, int *pargc, char ***pargv);
void CopyAddr(tcp_pair_addrblock *, struct ip *pip,portnum,portnum);
int WhichDir(tcp_pair_addrblock *, tcp_pair_addrblock *);
int SameConn(tcp_pair_addrblock *, tcp_pair_addrblock *, int *);
Bool ip_cksum_valid(struct ip *pip, void *plast);
Bool tcp_cksum_valid(struct ip *pip, struct tcphdr *ptcp, void *plast);
Bool udp_cksum_valid(struct ip *pip, struct udphdr *pudp, void *plast);
ipaddr *str2ipaddr(char *str);
int IPcmp(ipaddr *pipA, ipaddr *pipB);
void ModulesPerOldConn(tcp_pair *ptp);

/* Memory allocation routines with page boundaries */ 
tcp_pair *MakeTcpPair(void);
void FreeTcpPair(tcp_pair *ptr);
udp_pair *MakeUdpPair(void);
void FreeUdpPair(udp_pair *ptr);
seqspace *MakeSeqspace(void);
void FreeSeqspace(seqspace *ptr);
ptp_snap *MakePtpSnap(void);
void FreePtpSnap(ptp_snap *ptr);
segment *MakeSegment(void);
void FreeSegment(segment *ptr);
quadrant *MakeQuadrant(void);
void FreeQuadrant(quadrant *ptr);
ptp_ptr *MakePtpPtr(void);
void FreePtpPtr(ptp_ptr *ptr);
void freequad(quadrant **);

/* AVL tree support routines */
enum AVLRES SnapInsert(ptp_snap **n, ptp_snap *new_node);
enum AVLRES SnapRemove(ptp_snap **n, tcp_pair_addrblock address);
int AVL_WhichDir(tcp_pair_addrblock *ptpa1, tcp_pair_addrblock *ptpa2);
/* high-level line drawing */
PLINE new_line(PLOTTER pl, char *label, char *color);
void extend_line(PLINE pline, timeval xval, int yval);

/* UDP support routines */
void udptrace_init(void);
void udptrace_done(void);
udp_pair *udpdotrace(struct ip *pip, struct udphdr *pudp, void *plast);

/* filter routines */
void HelpFilter(void);
void ParseFilter(char *expr);
Bool PassesFilter(tcp_pair *ptp);

/* simple string expansion for file names, directories, etc */
char *ExpandFormat(const char *format);

/* TCP flags macros */
#define SYN_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & TH_SYN)
#define FIN_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & TH_FIN)
#define ACK_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & TH_ACK)
#define RESET_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & TH_RST)
#define PUSH_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & TH_PUSH)
#define URGENT_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & TH_URG)
#define FLAG6_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & 0x40)
#define FLAG7_SET(ptcp)((ptcp)->th_flags & 0x80)

/* Changed the following macros to reflect the correct position
of bits as specified in RFC 2481 and draft-ietf-tsvwg-ecn-04.txt */
      #define CWR_SET(ptcp)     (TH_X2((ptcp)) & TH_CWR)
      #define ECN_ECHO_SET(ptcp)(TH_X2((ptcp)) & TH_ECN_ECHO)

#define CWR_SET(ptcp)   (TH_FLAGS((ptcp)) & TH_CWR)
#define ECN_ECHO_SET(ptcp)    (TH_FLAGS((ptcp)) & TH_ECN_ECHO)

/* connection directions */
#define A2B 1
#define B2A -1

/* If the AVL node is to left or right in the AVL tree */
/* Words "LEFT" and "RIGHT" have already been taken in an enum
 * above. Let us call them LT, RT just not to make it ambiguous for ourselves
 * or the compiler or both :-)
#define LT -2
#define RT 2

/*macros for maintaining the seqspace used for rexmit*/
#define QUADSIZE  (0x40000000)
#define QUADNUM(seq)    ((seq>>30)+1)
#define IN_Q1(seq)      (QUADNUM(seq)==1)
#define IN_Q2(seq)      (QUADNUM(seq)==2)
#define IN_Q3(seq)      (QUADNUM(seq)==3)
#define IN_Q4(seq)      (QUADNUM(seq)==4)
#define FIRST_SEQ(quadnum)    (QUADSIZE*(quadnum-1))
#define LAST_SEQ(quadnum)     ((QUADSIZE*quadnum)-1) /* bug fix by Priya */
#define BOUNDARY(beg,fin) (QUADNUM((beg)) != QUADNUM((fin)))

/* physical layers currently understood                           */
#define PHYS_ETHER      1
#define PHYS_FDDI       2

 * SEQCMP - sequence space comparator
 *    This handles sequence space wrap-around. Overlow/Underflow makes
 * the result below correct ( -, 0, + ) for any a, b in the sequence
 * space. Results:      result      implies
 *                  -    a < b
 *                  0    a = b
 *                  +    a > b
#define     SEQCMP(a, b)            ((long)(a) - (long)(b))
#define     SEQ_LESSTHAN(a, b)      (SEQCMP(a,b) < 0)
#define     SEQ_GREATERTHAN(a, b)   (SEQCMP(a,b) > 0)

/* SACK TCP options (not an RFC yet, mostly from draft and RFC 1072) */
/* I'm assuming, for now, that the draft version is correct */
/* sdo -- Tue Aug 20, 1996 */
#define     TCPOPT_SACK_PERM 4      /* sack-permitted option */
#define     TCPOPT_SACK      5      /* sack attached option */
#define     MAX_SACKS       10      /* max number of sacks per segment (rfc1072) */
typedef struct sack_block {
    seqnum  sack_left;  /* left edge */
    seqnum  sack_right; /* right edge */
} sack_block;

#define MAX_UNKNOWN 16
typedef struct opt_unknown {
    u_char  unkn_opt;
    u_char  unkn_len;
} opt_unknown;

/* RFC 1323 TCP options (not usually in tcp.h yet) */
#define     TCPOPT_WS   3     /* window scaling */
#define     TCPOPT_TS   8     /* timestamp */

/* other options... */
#define     TCPOPT_ECHO       6     /* echo (rfc1072) */
#define     TCPOPT_ECHOREPLY  7     /* echo (rfc1072) */
#define TCPOPT_TIMESTAMP      8     /* timestamps (rfc1323) */
#define TCPOPT_CC       11    /* T/TCP CC options (rfc1644) */
#define TCPOPT_CCNEW          12    /* T/TCP CC options (rfc1644) */
#define TCPOPT_CCECHO         13    /* T/TCP CC options (rfc1644) */

/* RFC 2481 (ECN) IP and TCP flags (not usually defined yet) */
#define IPTOS_ECT 0x02  /* ECN-Capable Transport */
#define IPTOS_CE  0x01  /* Experienced Congestion */

// Modified the following macros to reflect the
// correct bit positions for CWR and ECE as specified in 
// RFC 2481 and the latest draft: draft-ietf-tsvwg-ecn-04.txt.
// The bits CWR and ECE are actually the most significant
// bits in the TCP flags octet respectively.

/*#define TH_ECN_ECHO   0x02 */     /* Used by receiver to echo CE bit */
/*#define TH_CWR        0x01 */     /* Congestion Window Reduced */

#define TH_CWR 0x80                 /* Used by sender to indicate congestion
                                             window size reduction. */
#define TH_ECN_ECHO 0x40      /* Used by receiver to echo CE bit. */

/* some compilers seem to want to make "char" unsigned by default, */
/* which is breaking stuff.  Rather than introduce (more) ugly */
/* machine dependencies, I'm going to FORCE some chars to be */
/* signed... */
typedef signed char s_char;

struct tcp_options {
    short   mss;        /* maximum segment size       */
    s_char  ws;         /* window scale (1323)        */
    long    tsval;            /* Time Stamp Val (1323)      */
    long    tsecr;            /* Time Stamp Echo Reply (1323)     */

    Bool    sack_req;   /* sacks requested            */
    s_char  sack_count; /* sack count in this packet */
    sack_block    sacks[MAX_SACKS]; /* sack blocks */

    /* echo request and reply */
    /* assume that value of -1 means unused  (?) */
    u_long  echo_req;
    u_long  echo_repl;

    /* T/TCP stuff */
    /* assume that value of -1 means unused  (?) */
    u_long  cc;
    u_long  ccnew;
    u_long  ccecho;

    /* record the stuff we don't understand, too */
    char    unknown_count;    /* number of unknown options */
    opt_unknown   unknowns[MAX_UNKNOWN]; /* unknown options */

 * File extensions to use
#define RTT_DUMP_FILE_EXTENSION           "_rttraw.dat"
#define RTT_GRAPH_FILE_EXTENSION    "_rtt.xpl"
#define PLOT_FILE_EXTENSION         "_tsg.xpl"
#define SEGSIZE_FILE_EXTENSION            "_ssize.xpl"
#define OWIN_FILE_EXTENSION         "_owin.xpl"
#define TLINE_FILE_EXTENSION        "_tline.xpl"
#define THROUGHPUT_FILE_EXTENSION   "_tput.xpl"
#define CONTENTS_FILE_EXTENSION           "_contents.dat"

/* name of file to store filtered output into */
#define PASS_FILTER_FILENAME        "PF"

/* name of the resource file */
#define TCPTRACE_RC_FILE ".tcptracerc"

/* name of the argument envariable */

/* packet-reading options... */
/* the type for a packet reading routine */
typedef int pread_f(struct timeval *, int *, int *, void **,
               int *, struct ip **, void **);

/* give the prototypes for the is_GLORP() routines supported */
      pread_f *is_snoop(char *);
#endif /* GROK_SNOOP */
#ifdef GROK_NETM
      pread_f *is_netm(char *);
#endif /* GROK_NETM */
      pread_f *is_tcpdump(char *);
#endif /* GROK_TCPDUMP */
      pread_f *is_EP(char *);
#endif /* GROK_ETHERPEEK */
#ifdef GROK_NS
      pread_f *is_ns(char *);
#endif /* GROK_NS */
      pread_f *is_nlanr(char *);
#endif /* GROK_NLANR */
      pread_f *is_netscout(char *);
#endif /* GROK_NETSCOUT */
#ifdef GROK_ERF
      pread_f *is_erf(char *);
#endif /* GROK_ERF */

#ifndef __VMS
/* I've had problems with the memcpy function that gcc stuffs into the program
   and alignment problems.  This should fix it! */
void *MemCpy(void *p1, void *p2, size_t n); /* in tcptrace.c */
#define memcpy(p1,p2,n) MemCpy(p1,p2,n)
#endif /* __VMS */

#ifdef __VMS
#define snprintf snprintf_vms
int snprintf_vms(char *str, size_t len, const char *fmt, ...);

 * timeval compare macros
#define tv_ge(lhs,rhs) (tv_cmp((lhs),(rhs)) >= 0)
#define tv_gt(lhs,rhs) (tv_cmp((lhs),(rhs)) >  0)
#define tv_le(lhs,rhs) (tv_cmp((lhs),(rhs)) <= 0)
#define tv_lt(lhs,rhs) (tv_cmp((lhs),(rhs)) <  0)
#define tv_eq(lhs,rhs) (tv_cmp((lhs),(rhs)) == 0)

/* handy constants */
#define US_PER_SEC 1000000    /* microseconds per second */
#define MS_PER_SEC 1000       /* milliseconds per second */

 * Macros to simplify access to IPv4/IPv6 header fields
#define PIP_VERS(pip) (IP_V((struct ip *)(pip)))
#define PIP_ISV6(pip) (PIP_VERS(pip) == 6)
#define PIP_ISV4(pip) (PIP_VERS(pip) == 4)
#define PIP_V6(pip) ((struct ipv6 *)(pip))
#define PIP_V4(pip) ((struct ip *)(pip))
#define PIP_EITHERFIELD(pip,fld4,fld6) \
#define PIP_LEN(pip) (PIP_EITHERFIELD(pip,ip_len,ip6_lngth))

 * Macros to simplify access to IPv4/IPv6 addresses
#define ADDR_VERSION(paddr) ((paddr)->addr_vers)
#define ADDR_ISV4(paddr) (ADDR_VERSION((paddr)) == 4)
#define ADDR_ISV6(paddr) (ADDR_VERSION((paddr)) == 6)
struct ipaddr *IPV4ADDR2ADDR(struct in_addr *addr4);    
struct ipaddr *IPV6ADDR2ADDR(struct in6_addr *addr6);

 * Macros to check for congestion experienced bits
#define IP_CE(pip) (((struct ip *)(pip))->ip_tos & IPTOS_CE)
#define IP_ECT(pip) (((struct ip *)(pip))->ip_tos & IPTOS_ECT)

 * fixes for various systems that aren't exactly like Solaris
#define IP_MAXPACKET 65535
#endif /* IP_MAXPACKET */

/* max 32 bit number */
#define MAX_32 (0x100000000LL)

#define ETHERTYPE_REVARP        0x8035

#define ETHERTYPE_VLAN        0x8100
#endif      /* 802.1Q Virtual LAN */

/* support for PPPoE encapsulation added by Yann Samama (ysamama@nortelnetworks.com)*/
#define ETHERTYPE_PPPOE_SESSION     0x8864
#endif /* PPPoE ether type */
#ifndef PPPOE_SIZE
#define PPPOE_SIZE            22
#endif /* PPPOE header size */

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